Organisational culture refers to the beliefs and values that have existed in an organisation for a long time, and to the beliefs of the staff and the foreseen value of their work that will influence their attitudes and behavior. Administrators usually adjust their leadership behavior to accomplish the mission of the organisation, and this could influence the employees' job satisfaction. It is therefore essential to understand the relationship between organisational cultures, leadership behavior and job satisfaction of employees.
Organisational culture is described by Robbins & Coulter as the shared values, beliefs, or perceptions held by employees within an organisation or organisational unit. Because organisational culture reflects the values, beliefs and behavioral norms that are used by employees in an organisation to give meaning to the situations that they encounter, it can influence the attitudes and behavior of the staff. Understanding the organisation's core values can prevent possible internal conflict.
In other management fields, empirical research of organisational culture has involved the functionalist perspective, providing impressive evidence of the role of organisational culture in improving performance. The pervasiveness of an organisational culture requires that management recognise its underpinning dimensions and its impact on employee-related variables, such as job satisfaction, organisational commitment, and performance.
Lund believed that less research was done on the relationship between organisational culture and job satisfaction within the research topic of organisational culture and outcome. The organisation consists of the staff, with the behavior of its individual members affecting outcomes. Since cultural research within the nursing field is not common, it is necessary to explore the way the culture influences the behavior of the nursing staff, and in turn how the behavior of the staff influences the organisational outcome.
A two-dimensional model of leadership that focuses on the concern for people and production has been used for many years in organisational research. In the late 1970s, leadership research started focusing on behavior within organisational change and development. Leadership implies authority in the broadest sense of the word and not simply the power to wield the stick. It is based on objective factors, such as managerial ability, and more subjective characteristics that include personal qualities of the leaders.This study explores the relationship between organisational culture and leadership behavior.
Berson & Linton discovered that within the research & development (R&D) and administrative environments, leadership behavior of a manager is closely related to work satisfaction of the employees. Nielsen et al, have stated that leadership behavior and job satisfaction will depend on the organisational context; therefore another objective of this research was to understand how the leadership behavior of the administrator in different organisational cultures affects job satisfaction.
Casida & Pinto-Zipp explored how nurses felt about the relationship between leadership and organisational culture, and found them to be correlated. Although the data indicated that the development of an organisational culture is related to the behavior of its leaders, the results failed conclude whether this affected their attitudes or behavior as employees.
From the nursing administration perspective, the normal course of action taken to influence employee behavior and achieve the objectives set by the administrators comes through administrative management. Therefore, as well as discussing the relationship between leadership behavior and organisational culture, this research will investigate the effect of leader behavior and organisational culture towards employee job satisfaction.
The findings clearly show that hospital administrators should be concerned about the effects of leadership behavior and organisational culture on the attitude towards work of their employees. This should help administrators alter their behavior in order to maintain a good mutual relationship with their subordinates, improving their working attitude and, more importantly, reducing potential conflicts.
Culture is socially learned and transmitted by members; it provides the rules for behavior within organisations. The definition of organisational culture is the belief that can guide staff in knowing what to do and what not to do, including practices, values, and assumptions about their work.
The core values of an organisation begin with its leadership, which will then evolve to a leadership style. Subordinates will be led by these values and the behavior of leaders, such that the behavior of both parties should become increasingly in line. When strong unified behavior, values and beliefs have been developed, a strong organisational culture emerges. Leaders have to appreciate their function in maintaining an organisation's culture. This would in return ensure consistent behavior between members of the organisation, reducing conflicts and creating a healthy working environment for employees.
Job satisfaction has been associated with employees who perceive their managers as supportive and caring. A supportive manager shares values, believes in a balance of power, and provides opportunities for open dialogue with employees, which in turn reduces the chances of internal conflicts. This type of leader is successful in his or her role and is supportive and responsive to the employees, thereby preserving power and status within the organisation. Such leaders are valued throughout the organisation and have executive power to do what they see as necessary to create a positive environment for working. Accordingly, they have a measurable effect on the morale and job satisfaction of employees.
Organisational culture expresses shared assumptions, values and beliefs, and is the social glue holding an organisation together. A strong culture is a system of rules that spells out how people should behave. An organisation with a strong culture has common values and codes of conduct for its employees, which should help them accomplish their missions and goals. Work recognition and job satisfaction can be achieved when employees can complete the tasks assigned to them by the organisation. “The leader is motivated by the accomplishment of his vision"; and "The leader will take into account the needs of the organisation in his decision making."
Vroom classified job satisfaction into seven dimensions: organisational, promotion, job content, superior, reward, working environment and working partners. We took into consideration that employees ‘salary increases are based on promotion. The culture within an organisation is very important, playing a large role in whether it is a happy and healthy environment in which to work.
In communicating and promoting the organisational ethos to employees, their acknowledgement and acceptance of it can influence their work behavior and attitudes. When the interaction between the leadership and employees is good, the latter will make a greater contribution to team communication and collaboration, and will also be encouraged to accomplish the mission and objectives assigned by the organisation, thereby enhancing job satisfaction.
(The views expressed are personal)